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What is NTSC and PAL ?

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Most countries in North and South America, including the US and Canada, utilize the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) format, while Europe, Australia and parts of Asia use a competing format called Phase Alternating Line (PAL). The major distinction between these two formats is the rate at which a broadcast is displayed on a TV screen: NTSC displays at 30 frames per second (fps), while PAL provides 25 fps. Each format also uses a different number of lines on an old analog TV display when showing the signal, creating two different resolutions. The widespread adoption of High-Definition Televisions (HDTVs) by many consumers has not eliminated this difference, however, since older broadcasting methods have influenced digital signal playback.
Primary Difference The differences between these formats really start with the electrical power system behind the transmissions viewed on a TV. In the US and countries like Canada and Mexico, electrical power is generated…

What is an Operating system?

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An operating system is a program designed to run other programs on a computer. A computer’s operating system is its most important program. It is considered the backbone of a computer, managing both software and hardware resources. Operating systems are responsible for everything from the control and allocation of memory to recognizing input from external devices and transmitting output to computer displays. They also manage files on computer hard drives and control peripherals, like printers and scanners.


The operating system of a large computer system has even more work to do. Such operating systems monitor different programs and users, making sure everything runs smoothly, without interference, despite the fact that numerous devices and programs are used simultaneously. An operating system also has a vital role to play in security. Its job includes preventing unauthorized users from accessing the computer system.

There are multiuser, multiprocessing, multitask…

What is Dual Core Technology?

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Dual core technology refers to two individual microprocessors on a single die cast chip. This is essentially two computer processing units (CPUs) in one. The advantage of a this type of chip is that tasks can be carried out in parallel streams, decreasing processing time. This is referred to as thread-level parallelism (TLP).TLP is also possible on motherboards that can accommodate two separate CPU dies. When TLP is accomplished in a single CPU through dual core technology, it is called chip-level multiprocessing (CLM).

In CPUs with more than one core, each microprocessor generally has its own on-board cache, known as Level 1 (L1) cache. L1 cache significantly improves system performance, because it is much faster to access on-chip cache than to use random access memory (RAM). L1 cache is accessed at microprocessor speeds.



Dual core chips also commonly feature secondary shared cache on the CPU, known as Level 2 (L2) cache. Motherboards may also have a cache chip designated as L…

What Is the Difference between a Sprocket and a Gear?

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The biggest difference between a sprocket and a gear is how each works on a functional level. Both tend to be grooved wheels used in machinery, and their basic appearance is often really similar — but how they operate and what, exactly, it is they do tends to be really different. In general, a gear is a toothed wheel designed to mesh with other gears and transmit movement to them, which in turn can cause movement elsewhere. A sprocket, conversely, is a toothed wheel designed to engage and directly move a flexible indented or perforated item, like a chain or belt. The applications of each are different as a result. Sprockets are most common when there’s a moving belt or chain that is contained, as is commonly the case in bicycles, conveyor belts, and film projection reels. Gears are typically preferable in all other scenarios, cars and heavy machinery included. Not only are gears more universally useful, but they also aren’t as likely to need repairs or re-fittings.

Bas…

What is an LTE Network?

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A Long Term Evolution (LTE) network is a type of wireless communications network designed to provide broadband Internet and phone service to mobile phones and other types of devices. Voice calls on an LTE network are converted into small chunks of data, which eliminates the need for separate voice circuits. These types of networks are often marketed as "4G" and are capable of offering speeds that rival wired broadband services. They also offer increased capacity, which may help wireless carriers deal with the increasing amounts of data used by smart phones and other devices.


Behind marketing terms like 3G and 4G are a variety of individual technologies that power wireless phone and data networks. Each technology can be grouped by generation. Analog phone systems were first generation, the earliest digital networks used second generation or 2G technology, and about a half dozen different base technologies and incremental upgrades make up the third generation or…

What is Plasma TV?

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A plasma TV is a high definition (HDTV) alternative to the standard cathode ray televisions sold today. It provides sharp images and vibrant colors, especially when used in conjunction with high definition broadcasts. Quite often a plasma screen is designed in a 16:9 ratio for wide screen movie formats, as opposed to the box-like 4:3 ratio of standard televisions. A quality plasma TV is not cheap, however. One of the chief selling points of a plasma TV is a flat screen, which allows it to be mounted directly on a wall without a lot of clearance required. Investors in this type of TV may also employ surround-sound theater speakers and high-end receivers to complete the feeling of luxury. Plasma televisions have become status symbols among technophiles and other wealthy consumers. The science behind a plasma TV is very complicated, so welcome to the geek_of_all school of oversimplification.

 'Plasma' is a scientific term referring to gases like neon and xenon which glow when e…

What is MPEG?

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MPEG stands for the Motion Picture Experts Group, part of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which creates and publishes standards for various areas of technology, respectively. MPEG standards address audio and video formats used online, in television broadcasts, and in DVD media.

A number of MPEG standards are in current use, and more are sure to follow. Some well-known standards are explained briefly below.


MPEG-1: This first set of standards was developed for audio and video compression. Layer 3 is a codec within these standards, known simply as MP3, or the popular audio compression format for music.
This video format was used to store movies on CDs, known as Video CD, or VCD. Quality is equal to that of a VHS tape, and compatibility playback on CD/DVD players is high. One drawback of this standard is that it only supports progressive footage, verses the inclusion of interlaced. These terms relate…